TAM Ampoules are used to contain the sample in the calorimeter during measurement. The ampoules are of two basic types; Closed and Open. In the Closed ampoules, no manipulation to the sample is done during the measurement. In the Open ampoules, also reffered to as the Micro Reaction System, the sample can be manipulated after insertion into the calorimeter. These include:
• Closed Ampoules – A majority of experiments do not need any change in the experimental conditions during measurements. Such experiments can be run in closed ampoules.
• Open Ampoules Micro Reaction System – The Micro Reaction System is used whenever sample manipulation is required during measurements. With the Micro Reaction System gas or liquid can be perfused over a sample, injections of one substance to another stirred substance can be made, or the smaple can be exposed to a controlled realtive humidity or vapor pressure. The sample is loaded into a reaction vessel made of glass, stainless steel or hastelloy. This reaction vessel (available in 1, 4, 20ml) is then sealed on the Micro Reaction ampoule.
Disposable Crimp Seal Glass Ampoules
Disposable ampoules are the most convenient to use since they can be thrown away after use and no cleaning is required. The crimp seal ampoule is perfect for experiments at lower temperature ranges. They are available in 3, 4 and 20 ml sizes.
Stainless Steel Ampoules
Available in regular stainless steel or hastelloy, these ampoules are used for samples that either react with glass, are to be investigated at high temperatures, or where it is suspected that a gas will be evolved during the experiment which increases the pressure in the ampoule. Ampoule lids are screw top and are available in 4 and 20 ml sizes.
Heat Sealed Ampoules
The heat seal ampoules are sealed by melting the glass at the top of the ampoule. These are recommended when rubber caps would be affected by gases or liquid involved in a reaction. The reactants are completely surrounded by glass. They are available for a maximum sample volume of 5 ml.
TAM Air Ampoules
All 20 ml closed ampoules currently available from TA Instruments can be used in the TAM Air Calorimeter. 20 ml ampoules are available in glass, stainless steel or HDPE (plastic).
The Admix Ampoule is also available with or without a motor. For suspensions such as mixtures of cement/water manual stirring is recommended. For liquid systems, a motor may be used for stirring.
The removable ampoules offer a level of practicality unmatched in the industry. TAM-ITC ampoules are easily removed and cleaned outside of the instrument. Competitive designs feature fixed cells which require thorough cleaning between experiments, and preclude visual inspection. The open vessels of TAM-ITC ampoules also allows solid suspensions, solid matrixes with attached living cells, macromolecules, etc. to be loaded into the reaction vessel. This allows ligand binding to the solid system to be measured. There is no possibility for this kind of matrix experiments to be run on competitive fixed-cell instruments.
In TAM-ITC different sizes of syringes ranging from 100 to 2.5 mL are available. The injections volumes/flow are controlled by a high precision syringe pump. Each pump can support two syringes. In addition, two pumps can be attached to one titration ampoule which is useful for studying enzyme kinetics. This option is not available in competitive designs.
The perfusion ampoule is the simplest micro reaction system available, and is typically used with the Nanocalorimeter. A liquid or gas is perfused through the ampoule and out through an exit tube. Gases are perfused using a mass flow controller that is controlled by TAM Assistant™s software. Liquids are perfused using a peristaltic pump. The perfusion ampoule can be used to measure either the heat production rate from a flowing gas/liquid or the effect of the gas/liquid on a sample placed in the perfusion ampoule. The perfusion ampoule is available in 1, 4 and 20 ml versions.
RH Perfusion Ampoule
The RH perfusion ampoule perfuses a gas of defined relative humidity over a sample and out through an exit tube. The relative humidity is controlled using two mass flow controllers, one of which passes gas directly to the sample and the other passes gas through two humidifying chambers prior to the sample. TAM Assistant™ software controls both the relative humidity and the total flow rate over the sample. The software is also used to change the humidity in a linear ramp or stepwise. The RH perfusion ampoule is available in 1, 4 and 20 ml versions. It is possible to use solvents other than water in the humidifying chambers which allows a gas of varying vapor pressure of a solvent to be passed over a sample.