Lyophilization, also called freeze-drying, is the process of removing water from a sample, often for preservation. Lyophilization involves the sublimation of a sample’s water content, usually through a rapid freezing process. Freezing materials quickly helps avoid the destruction of the cell walls in the sample from the formation of large ice crystals.
Gene therapy is an approach to disease treatment where a patient’s genetic makeup is altered rather than using drugs or surgery. Gene therapy treatment is accomplished through the activation of a particular gene, repairing faulty genes, or introducing new genes to help fight disease.
Pharmaceutical development is highly regulated, and for good reason. Potential new products must be rigorously tested to ensure their safety, purity, and performance are acceptable before coming to market. For topical creams, regulations uphold stability lifetime parameters and require identification of any impurities before products reach consumers.
Differential scanning calorimetry is an analytical technique used to measure the amount of heat released or absorbed by a sample during heating or cooling over a range of temperature. As well as being used to characterize the thermal properties of a material, a differential scanning calorimeter is used to determine the temperature at which particular phase transitions occur, including glass transition temperature, fusion and crystallization events.