The most popular tool used to characterize binding in the late-discovery phase of drug development is isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). ITC is a high-resolution method for complete characterization of the basic chemical details of a binding interaction. The calorimeters accomplish this by measuring the heat that is released or absorbed when molecules interact with each other.
Drug development is a long and complex process that starts with discovery and, if successful, ends with government approval for marketing. Each step in the drug development process, outlined below, has specific goals with the aim of down-selecting appropriate hits and candidates to an approved drug substance.
18世紀、多くの科学者が熱の性質について研究を行いました。アイザック・ニュートンは、熱は粒子の振動によって伝達されるものと考え、ロバート・フックは、熱は物体の特性であり、各部位の動きから生じると考えました1 。しかし、熱の測定の歴史に寄与した最初の著名な科学者はスコットランドの物理学者・化学者であるジョン・ブラックでした1 。1761年、彼は正確な測定方法を使って、氷の融点または水の沸点に熱をかけても、温度が変化しないことを発見しました1。 この観察結果により彼は、後の熱力学概念の発端となった、温度と熱とを識別することに成功した最初の科学者となります。
Antibody stability is crucial for antibody performance in therapeutics. High antibody thermostabilities are essential for creating products with a reasonable shelf life and avoiding problems with deterioration of the biophysical properties of the antibody.
Gene therapy is an approach to disease treatment where a patient’s genetic makeup is altered rather than using drugs or surgery. Gene therapy treatment is accomplished through the activation of a particular gene, repairing faulty genes, or introducing new genes to help fight disease.
Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) is an experimental method used to measure the amount of heat released or consumed during a bimolecular chemical reaction. Chemical reactions can be either exothermic or endothermic, depending on the relative energetic stabilities of the reactants. Isothermal titration calorimetry can be used to quantify the magnitude of the heat change during the reaction.
Biological macromolecules are fundamental components of every cell and are therefore essential for all life. These vital molecules are categorized into four major classes: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Characterizing biological macromolecules is important for understanding their functions and relationships, which empowers the development of new therapies and treatments. Under this branch of macromolecule research, biotherapeutic drug therapy focuses on macromolecular interactions which can lead to disease and/or cell death.