TA Instruments

Testing Services

TA Instruments Testing Services

TA Analytical Services Laboratory is an expert in material and structural property testing across various techniques including thermal, rheological, and physical testing. The testing laboratory is led by our specialized knowledge in material science instrumentation development, delivery of first-class application methods, and commitment to delivering what you need.

The TA Analytical Services Laboratory is able to provide routine material characterization and structural property testing or even more advanced development services. Our skills and in-depth understanding of customer needs span across multiple industries and can deliver numerous offerings including (and not limited to):

  • Running single or batch samples
    • Routine
    • Challenging
  • Method development
  • Results validation
    • Verify your results
    • Confirm with complementary technique

Contact us today for pricing and more information.

View TA Testing Services Brochure

Applications

Adhesives & sealants

Building Materials

Fine & specialty chemicals

Packaging

Aerospace

Ceramics

Food

Personal care & beauty

Agriculture

Composites

Inorganic Material

Polymers

Automotive

Electronics

Inks, Paints, & Coatings

Rubbers & elastomers

What to expect from the TA Analytical Services Laboratory

After you provide us a few details either through our contact form or email, you will be contacted by the Lab to further discuss your needs.

Once the project has been scoped, a quote will be provided to you for your review and approval. Upon approval, there will be multiple payment options available for your convenience.

Then ship your samples along with the form provided with the quote. Once received, we will send you a confirmation and the expected completion date. We will be in constant contact as needed and don’t hesitate to check in with us on the status of your samples!

Once our high-precision measurement results are completed, verified, and analyzed, we will send you a detailed report of the findings and if needed, schedule a time to discuss.

We are here and ready to review and quote our laboratory testing services for you, whether you need thermal testing services, viscosity testing services, differential scanning calorimetry services, thermal resistivity testing services, glass testing services or any of the other multitude of laboratory testing services we provide!

Sample Ordering Process

Techniques and Testing Standards

Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)


Differential Scanning Calorimeters (DSC) measure temperatures and heat flows associated with thermal transitions in a material. Common usage includes investigation, selection, comparison and end-use performance evaluation of materials in research, quality control and production applications. Properties measured by TA Instruments’ DSC techniques include glass transitions, “cold” crystallization, phase changes, melting, crystallization, product stability, cure / cure kinetics, and oxidative stability.

Temperature Range: -180°C to 550°C 

Detectable Information: Glass transitions, melting, crystallization, phase changes, heat capacity, cure kinetics, oxidative induction time

Standards

  • D3418 – Standard Test Method for Transition Temperatures and Enthalpies of Fusion and Crystallization of Polymers by Differential Scanning Calorimetry.
  • D3895 – Standard Test Method for Oxidative-Induction Time of Polyolefins by Differential Scanning Calorimetry.
  • D4419 – Standard Test Method for Measurement of Transition Temperatures of Petroleum Waxes by Differential Scanning Calorimetry.
  • D4591 – Standard Test Method for Determining Temperatures and Heats of Transitions of Fluoropolymers by Differential Scanning Calorimetry.
  • D5028 – Standard Test Method for Curing Properties of Pultrusion Resins by Thermal Analysis.
  • E2160 – Standard Test Method for Heat of Reaction of Thermally Reactive Materials by DSC.
  • E2716 – Standard Test Method for Determining Specific Heat Capacity by Sinusoidal Modulated Temperature Differential Scanning Calorimetry.
  • E793 – Standard Test Method for Enthalpies of Fusion and Crystallization by Differential Scanning Calorimetry.
  • E794 – Standard Test Method for Melting and Crystallization Temperatures By Thermal Analysis.
  • E1269 – Standard Test Method for Determining Specific Heat Capacity by Differential Scanning Calorimetry.
  • E1356 – Standard Test Method for Assignment of the Glass Transition Temperatures by Differential Scanning Calorimetry.
  • E1782 – Standard Test Method for Determining Vapor Pressure by Thermal Analysis.

Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA)

Thermogravimetric Analyzers measures temperatures and weight changes associated transitions in a material. Common usage includes decomposition, volatilization, residue, material composition analysis, decomposition kinetics, thermal and oxidative stabilities.

Temperature Range: 30°C to 1200°C

Detectable Information: weight change temperature, weight change amount, decomposition kinetics, residue.

Standards

  • E1868 – Standard Test Method for Loss-On-Drying by Thermogravimetry.
  • E2008 – Standard Test Method for Volatility Rate by Thermogravimetry.
  • D6375 – Standard Test Method for Evaporation Loss of Lubricating Oils by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) Noack Method.
  • E1131 – Standard Test Method for Compositional Analysis by Thermogravimetry.


Simultaneous DSC-TGA

Simultaneous DSC/TGA measures temperatures and heat flows and weight changes associated transitions in a material. Common usage includes investigation, selection, comparison, and end-use performance evaluation of materials in research, quality control and production applications. Properties measured include phase transitions, melting, crystallization, decomposition, volatilization, residue, decomposition kinetics, thermal and oxidative stability.

Temperature Range:30°C to 1500°C

Detectable Information: Phase transitions, melting, crystallization, heat capacity, decomposition temperature, decomposition kinetics


Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA)

Thermomechanical Analyzers (TMA) measure changes in the dimensions of a sample as a function of time, temperature, and force in a controlled atmosphere.

Properties measured by TMA include the material’s coefficient of linear thermal expansion (CTE), shrinkage, softening, and glass transition temperatures. Modulated TMA (MTMA) can be used for deconvolution of the Total dimension change signal into Reversing and Non-Reversing dimension change signals for separating expansion from contraction, shrinkage, and stress relaxation.

Temperature Range:-150°C to 1000°C 

Detectable Information: Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE), sample expansion and contraction, softening points, glass transition temperatures, and delamination.

Standards

  • E2347 – Standard Test Method for Indentation Softening Temperature by TMA.
  • E831 – Standard Test Method for Linear Thermal Expansion of Solid Materials by Thermomechanical Analysis.
  • E1545 – Standard Test Method for Assignment of the Glass Transition Temperature by Thermomechanical Analysis.
  • E1824 – Standard Test Method for Assignment of a Glass Transition Temperature Using Thermomechanical Analysis Under Tension.

Dynamic Mechanical Analysis measures the mechanical properties of materials as a function of time, temperature, and frequency. In addition to basic material properties, DMA also quantifies finished part characteristics, reflecting the important contribution that processing has on end-use performance. DMA is commonly used to measure glass transition temperatures and secondary transitions, orientation caused by processing, cold crystallization and effect of crystallinity on mechanical properties, cure optimization, filler effects in composites, and much more. DMA provides an accurate measure of material strength (modulus) but also other important mechanical properties such as damping, creep, and stress relaxation.

Temperature Range: -150°C to 600°C 

Detectable Information: Glass transition temperature (Tg), secondary transitions, modulus, viscoelasticity (storage modulus, loss modulus, tan delta), creep and creep compliance, stress relaxation, shrinkage and shrinkage forces

Standards

  • D5023-07 Dynamic Mechanical Properties Three Point Bending
  • D5024-07 Dynamic Mechanical Properties in Compression
  • D5026-06 Dynamic Mechanical Properties in Tension
  • D5418 – 07 Dynamic Mechanical Properties: In Flexure (Dual Cantilever Beam)
  • D7028-07 Tg by DMA
  • E1640 Tg by DMA

A rotational rheometer is used to measure viscosity (eta) and viscoelasticity (G’, G” and Tan delta) properties of a material.  Rheometers can handle all kinds of samples from low viscosity liquids (e.g. water or solvents), semi-solid or soft gels, to high stiffness and high modulus solids.

A rotational rheometer can perform flow measurements to test the viscosity of a liquid as a function of time, temperature shear rate or shear stress. Flow tests can also be used to measure the yield stress and thixotropic properties of a structured fluids.  The rheometer can also perform dynamic oscillatory measurements to measure the viscoelastic properties of a semi-solid or solid sample.  Typical oscillation tests are used to verify the linear viscoelastic region; monitor thermoset curing or sample stability; quantify differences in different formulations; measure polymer melts to compare differences in their molecular weight and molecular weight distribution; measure sample modulus and elasticity change as a function of time and temperature; measure glass transition (Tg) and sub-ambient transitions of polymers or polymer blends. In addition, a rotational rheometer can also perform transient type of measurements to study creep-recovery and stress relaxation.

Temperature Range: -150°C to 600°C

Detectable Information: viscosity, yield stress, thixotropy, curing, modulus (G’, G” G*), damping factor (tan delta), glass transitions, sub-ambient transitions, stress relaxation, creep-recovery

Standards

  • D4092-07 Std terminology for dynamic mechanical properties
  • D4440-08 Dynamic Mechanical Properties Melt Rheology
  • D4473-08 Dynamic Mechanical Properties Cure Behavior
  • D5279_torsion

Horizontal & Vertical Dilatometry

Horizontal & Vertical Dilatometers use a pushrod technique to measure change in length, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), softening points, and determine phase and glass transitions. Both the horizontal and vertical orientations allow for forces to be applied over the measurement range, aiding in the detection of length changes over temperature profiles.

Temperature Range: -160°C to 1700°C

Detectable Information: CTE, softening points, phase, and glass transitions

Standards

  • ASTM C372 – Standard Test Method for Linear Thermal Expansion of Porcelain Enamel and Glaze Frits and Fired Ceramic Whiteware Products by Dilatometer Method
  • ASTM E228 – Standard Test Method for Linear Thermal Expansion of Solid Materials with a Push-Rod Dilatometers
  • DIN 52328 – Testing of Glass; Determination of Coefficient of Mean Linear Thermal Expansion
  • ASTM C531 – Standard Test Method for Linear Shrinkage and Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Chemical-Resistant Mortars, Grouts, Monolithic Surfacings, and Polymer Concretes
  • ASTM E831 – Standard Test Method for Linear Thermal Expansion of Solid Materials by Thermomechanical Analysis
  • ASTM C824 – Standard Practice for Specimen Preparation for Determination of Linear Thermal Expansion of Vitreous Glass Enamels and Glass Enamel Frits by Dilatometer Method Products and Services
  • DIN 51045 – Determination of the Thermal Expansion of Solids
  • ASTM D696 – Standard Test Method for Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion of Plastics between -30°C and 30°C with a Vitreous Silica Dilatometer
  • DIN 51909 – Testing of Carbonaceous Materials; Determination of Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion – Solid Materials

Optical Dilatometry

Optical Dilatometers can be used for testing materials that would be deformed by pushrod pressure(s). High performance light beams are shined onto samples, and their resulting shadow allows for the determination of material changes in shape and dimensions as a function of the temperature without physical contact with the specimen. The measurement method is entirely independent of any possible expansion or contraction of the instrument. It is the ideal instrument for studying incoherent materials, plastic or viscous materials, sintering kinetics, and thin samples.

Temperature Range: 30°C to 1650°C

Detectable Information: CTE, softening points, phase, and glass transitions

Standards

  • ASTM C372 – Standard Test Method for Linear Thermal Expansion of Porcelain Enamel and Glaze Frits and Fired Ceramic Whiteware Products by Dilatometer Method
  • ASTM D1857 – Standard Test Method for Fusibility of Coal and Coke Ash
  • BS 1016: Part 15 – Methods for Analysis and Testing of Coal and Coke; Fusibility of Coal Ash and Coke Ash
  • ISO 12891 – Retrieval and Analysis of Surgical Implants
  • ISO 540 – Hard coal and coke — Determination of ash fusibility

Laser & Xenon Flash instruments measure the speed with which materials transport heat. Metals, steel, aluminum, glass, ceramics, carbons, and polymers can be tested to determine thermal diffusivity, as well as specific heat and thermal conductivity.

Temperature: -150°C to 1600°C

Detectable Information: Thermal diffusivity, Thermal Conductivity and Specific Heat

Standards

  • ASTM E1461 – Standard Test Method for Thermal Diffusivity by the Flash Method
  • ISO 18755 – Fine Ceramics (Advanced Ceramics, Advanced Technical Ceramics) – Determination of Thermal Diffusivity of Monolithic Ceramics by Laser Flash Method
  • ASTM C714 – Standard Test Method for Thermal Diffusivity of Carbon and Graphite by a Thermal Pulse Method
  • ASTM E2585 – Standard Practice for Thermal Diffusivity by the Flash Method
  • DIN 30905 – Thermophysical Properties of Hard Metals – Measurement of Thermal Diffusivity with the Laser Flash Method
  • BS ENV 1159-2 – Advanced Technical Ceramics, Ceramic Composites, Thermophysical Properties, Determination of Thermal Diffusivity
  • DIN EN 821 – Advanced Technical Ceramics – Monolithic Ceramics, Thermophysical Properties – Part 2: Determination of Thermal Diffusivity by the Laser Flash Method

Heat Flow Meters measure thermal conductivity and its associated properties through steady-state testing. Solids, pastes, liquids, thin films, and polymers are all capable of conductivity and thermal resistance measurement.

Temperature Range: -20°C to 300°C

Detectable Information: Thermal Conductivity

Low Thermal Conductivity Materials Standards

  • FOX 200, 314, 600, 801, 1000
    • ASTM C518 – Standard Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Heat Flow Meter Apparatus
    • ISO 8301 – Thermal insulation — Determination of steady-state thermal resistance and related properties — Heat flow meter apparatus
    • DIN EN 12667 – Thermal performance of building materials and products – Determination of thermal resistance by means of guarded hot plate and heat flow meter methods – Products of high and medium thermal resistance

Medium Thermal Conductivity Materials Standards

  • FOX 50
    • ASTM C518 – Standard Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Heat Flow Meter Apparatus
    • ISO 8301 – Thermal insulation — Determination of steady-state thermal resistance and related properties — Heat flow meter apparatus
  • DTC 300
    • ASTM E1530 – Guarded Heat Flow Meter Method

RPA Rubber Testing

Rubber Process Analyzers (RPA) characterize material properties of raw polymer and rubber compounds as a function of measurement frequency and amplitude. These material properties directly impact processing behavior, manufacturing efficiency, and final product performance. Flexibility in test method setup provides characterization of rubber compounds before, during, and after the cure in a single test.

These tests can be used for:

  • batch-to-batch variation analysis
  • quality of mix and filler distribution verification (ex. Payne effect)
  • compound formulation and processability studies
  • polymer structure characterization (ex. LCB index)

Standards: ASTM D6048, D6204, D6601, D7050, D8059 and relevant DIN, and ISO standards.

Temperature Range: Ambient to 230°C

Detectable Information: modulus (G’, G”, G*), complex viscosity (eta*), damping factor (tan delta), Payne effect, polymer long chain branching index (LCB index)

MDR

Rubber curemeters (MDR) measure the cure profile of rubber compounds under isothermal or non-isothermal conditions. Non-isothermal conditions include constant heating rates or user-defined temperature profiles which can mimic processing or molding conditions. Additional capabilities include simultaneous measurement of pressure and torque for blowing and foaming materials. These tests can be used for:

  • batch qualification
  • quality of mix verification
  • compound formulation studies
  • reaction kinetics and activation energy calculations
  • cure simulations.

All tests meet ASTM D5289 and other relevant DIN and ISO standards.

Temperature Range: Ambient to 230°C

Detectable Information: Minimum torque (ML), Maximum torque (MH), cure times (TC), scorch times (TS), cure kinetics, activation energy, pressure curves


Mooney Viscometer

Mooney viscometry measure the Mooney viscosity of raw polymers and rubber compounds. The measurement is made at one specific shear rate or rotational speed and the results are reported as Mooney Viscosity in Mooney Units (MU). Additional measurement techniques include Mooney stress-relaxation for relative comparison of elasticity of rubber samples and Mooney scorch which characterizes the onset of cure by measuring the corresponding increase in the Mooney viscosity at a given temperature. These additional tests can be useful for product development and optimizing processing conditions.

Standards: ASTM D1646 and relevant DIN, and ISO standards.

Temperature Range:  30°C to 200°C

Detectable Information: Mooney Viscosity (MU), Mooney stress relaxation (MSR), scorch time

Thermal Analysis

Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)


Differential Scanning Calorimeters (DSC) measure temperatures and heat flows associated with thermal transitions in a material. Common usage includes investigation, selection, comparison and end-use performance evaluation of materials in research, quality control and production applications. Properties measured by TA Instruments’ DSC techniques include glass transitions, “cold” crystallization, phase changes, melting, crystallization, product stability, cure / cure kinetics, and oxidative stability.

Temperature Range: -180°C to 550°C 

Detectable Information: Glass transitions, melting, crystallization, phase changes, heat capacity, cure kinetics, oxidative induction time

Standards

  • D3418 – Standard Test Method for Transition Temperatures and Enthalpies of Fusion and Crystallization of Polymers by Differential Scanning Calorimetry.
  • D3895 – Standard Test Method for Oxidative-Induction Time of Polyolefins by Differential Scanning Calorimetry.
  • D4419 – Standard Test Method for Measurement of Transition Temperatures of Petroleum Waxes by Differential Scanning Calorimetry.
  • D4591 – Standard Test Method for Determining Temperatures and Heats of Transitions of Fluoropolymers by Differential Scanning Calorimetry.
  • D5028 – Standard Test Method for Curing Properties of Pultrusion Resins by Thermal Analysis.
  • E2160 – Standard Test Method for Heat of Reaction of Thermally Reactive Materials by DSC.
  • E2716 – Standard Test Method for Determining Specific Heat Capacity by Sinusoidal Modulated Temperature Differential Scanning Calorimetry.
  • E793 – Standard Test Method for Enthalpies of Fusion and Crystallization by Differential Scanning Calorimetry.
  • E794 – Standard Test Method for Melting and Crystallization Temperatures By Thermal Analysis.
  • E1269 – Standard Test Method for Determining Specific Heat Capacity by Differential Scanning Calorimetry.
  • E1356 – Standard Test Method for Assignment of the Glass Transition Temperatures by Differential Scanning Calorimetry.
  • E1782 – Standard Test Method for Determining Vapor Pressure by Thermal Analysis.

Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA)

Thermogravimetric Analyzers measures temperatures and weight changes associated transitions in a material. Common usage includes decomposition, volatilization, residue, material composition analysis, decomposition kinetics, thermal and oxidative stabilities.

Temperature Range: 30°C to 1200°C

Detectable Information: weight change temperature, weight change amount, decomposition kinetics, residue.

Standards

  • E1868 – Standard Test Method for Loss-On-Drying by Thermogravimetry.
  • E2008 – Standard Test Method for Volatility Rate by Thermogravimetry.
  • D6375 – Standard Test Method for Evaporation Loss of Lubricating Oils by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) Noack Method.
  • E1131 – Standard Test Method for Compositional Analysis by Thermogravimetry.


Simultaneous DSC-TGA

Simultaneous DSC/TGA measures temperatures and heat flows and weight changes associated transitions in a material. Common usage includes investigation, selection, comparison, and end-use performance evaluation of materials in research, quality control and production applications. Properties measured include phase transitions, melting, crystallization, decomposition, volatilization, residue, decomposition kinetics, thermal and oxidative stability.

Temperature Range:30°C to 1500°C

Detectable Information: Phase transitions, melting, crystallization, heat capacity, decomposition temperature, decomposition kinetics


Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA)

Thermomechanical Analyzers (TMA) measure changes in the dimensions of a sample as a function of time, temperature, and force in a controlled atmosphere.

Properties measured by TMA include the material’s coefficient of linear thermal expansion (CTE), shrinkage, softening, and glass transition temperatures. Modulated TMA (MTMA) can be used for deconvolution of the Total dimension change signal into Reversing and Non-Reversing dimension change signals for separating expansion from contraction, shrinkage, and stress relaxation.

Temperature Range:-150°C to 1000°C 

Detectable Information: Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE), sample expansion and contraction, softening points, glass transition temperatures, and delamination.

Standards

  • E2347 – Standard Test Method for Indentation Softening Temperature by TMA.
  • E831 – Standard Test Method for Linear Thermal Expansion of Solid Materials by Thermomechanical Analysis.
  • E1545 – Standard Test Method for Assignment of the Glass Transition Temperature by Thermomechanical Analysis.
  • E1824 – Standard Test Method for Assignment of a Glass Transition Temperature Using Thermomechanical Analysis Under Tension.

Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA)

Dynamic Mechanical Analysis measures the mechanical properties of materials as a function of time, temperature, and frequency. In addition to basic material properties, DMA also quantifies finished part characteristics, reflecting the important contribution that processing has on end-use performance. DMA is commonly used to measure glass transition temperatures and secondary transitions, orientation caused by processing, cold crystallization and effect of crystallinity on mechanical properties, cure optimization, filler effects in composites, and much more. DMA provides an accurate measure of material strength (modulus) but also other important mechanical properties such as damping, creep, and stress relaxation.

Temperature Range: -150°C to 600°C 

Detectable Information: Glass transition temperature (Tg), secondary transitions, modulus, viscoelasticity (storage modulus, loss modulus, tan delta), creep and creep compliance, stress relaxation, shrinkage and shrinkage forces

Standards

  • D5023-07 Dynamic Mechanical Properties Three Point Bending
  • D5024-07 Dynamic Mechanical Properties in Compression
  • D5026-06 Dynamic Mechanical Properties in Tension
  • D5418 – 07 Dynamic Mechanical Properties: In Flexure (Dual Cantilever Beam)
  • D7028-07 Tg by DMA
  • E1640 Tg by DMA
Rheology

A rotational rheometer is used to measure viscosity (eta) and viscoelasticity (G’, G” and Tan delta) properties of a material.  Rheometers can handle all kinds of samples from low viscosity liquids (e.g. water or solvents), semi-solid or soft gels, to high stiffness and high modulus solids.

A rotational rheometer can perform flow measurements to test the viscosity of a liquid as a function of time, temperature shear rate or shear stress. Flow tests can also be used to measure the yield stress and thixotropic properties of a structured fluids.  The rheometer can also perform dynamic oscillatory measurements to measure the viscoelastic properties of a semi-solid or solid sample.  Typical oscillation tests are used to verify the linear viscoelastic region; monitor thermoset curing or sample stability; quantify differences in different formulations; measure polymer melts to compare differences in their molecular weight and molecular weight distribution; measure sample modulus and elasticity change as a function of time and temperature; measure glass transition (Tg) and sub-ambient transitions of polymers or polymer blends. In addition, a rotational rheometer can also perform transient type of measurements to study creep-recovery and stress relaxation.

Temperature Range: -150°C to 600°C

Detectable Information: viscosity, yield stress, thixotropy, curing, modulus (G’, G” G*), damping factor (tan delta), glass transitions, sub-ambient transitions, stress relaxation, creep-recovery

Standards

  • D4092-07 Std terminology for dynamic mechanical properties
  • D4440-08 Dynamic Mechanical Properties Melt Rheology
  • D4473-08 Dynamic Mechanical Properties Cure Behavior
  • D5279_torsion
Dilatometry

Horizontal & Vertical Dilatometry

Horizontal & Vertical Dilatometers use a pushrod technique to measure change in length, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), softening points, and determine phase and glass transitions. Both the horizontal and vertical orientations allow for forces to be applied over the measurement range, aiding in the detection of length changes over temperature profiles.

Temperature Range: -160°C to 1700°C

Detectable Information: CTE, softening points, phase, and glass transitions

Standards

  • ASTM C372 – Standard Test Method for Linear Thermal Expansion of Porcelain Enamel and Glaze Frits and Fired Ceramic Whiteware Products by Dilatometer Method
  • ASTM E228 – Standard Test Method for Linear Thermal Expansion of Solid Materials with a Push-Rod Dilatometers
  • DIN 52328 – Testing of Glass; Determination of Coefficient of Mean Linear Thermal Expansion
  • ASTM C531 – Standard Test Method for Linear Shrinkage and Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Chemical-Resistant Mortars, Grouts, Monolithic Surfacings, and Polymer Concretes
  • ASTM E831 – Standard Test Method for Linear Thermal Expansion of Solid Materials by Thermomechanical Analysis
  • ASTM C824 – Standard Practice for Specimen Preparation for Determination of Linear Thermal Expansion of Vitreous Glass Enamels and Glass Enamel Frits by Dilatometer Method Products and Services
  • DIN 51045 – Determination of the Thermal Expansion of Solids
  • ASTM D696 – Standard Test Method for Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion of Plastics between -30°C and 30°C with a Vitreous Silica Dilatometer
  • DIN 51909 – Testing of Carbonaceous Materials; Determination of Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion – Solid Materials

Optical Dilatometry

Optical Dilatometers can be used for testing materials that would be deformed by pushrod pressure(s). High performance light beams are shined onto samples, and their resulting shadow allows for the determination of material changes in shape and dimensions as a function of the temperature without physical contact with the specimen. The measurement method is entirely independent of any possible expansion or contraction of the instrument. It is the ideal instrument for studying incoherent materials, plastic or viscous materials, sintering kinetics, and thin samples.

Temperature Range: 30°C to 1650°C

Detectable Information: CTE, softening points, phase, and glass transitions

Standards

  • ASTM C372 – Standard Test Method for Linear Thermal Expansion of Porcelain Enamel and Glaze Frits and Fired Ceramic Whiteware Products by Dilatometer Method
  • ASTM D1857 – Standard Test Method for Fusibility of Coal and Coke Ash
  • BS 1016: Part 15 – Methods for Analysis and Testing of Coal and Coke; Fusibility of Coal Ash and Coke Ash
  • ISO 12891 – Retrieval and Analysis of Surgical Implants
  • ISO 540 – Hard coal and coke — Determination of ash fusibility

Flash Diffusivity

Laser & Xenon Flash instruments measure the speed with which materials transport heat. Metals, steel, aluminum, glass, ceramics, carbons, and polymers can be tested to determine thermal diffusivity, as well as specific heat and thermal conductivity.

Temperature: -150°C to 1600°C

Detectable Information: Thermal diffusivity, Thermal Conductivity and Specific Heat

Standards

  • ASTM E1461 – Standard Test Method for Thermal Diffusivity by the Flash Method
  • ISO 18755 – Fine Ceramics (Advanced Ceramics, Advanced Technical Ceramics) – Determination of Thermal Diffusivity of Monolithic Ceramics by Laser Flash Method
  • ASTM C714 – Standard Test Method for Thermal Diffusivity of Carbon and Graphite by a Thermal Pulse Method
  • ASTM E2585 – Standard Practice for Thermal Diffusivity by the Flash Method
  • DIN 30905 – Thermophysical Properties of Hard Metals – Measurement of Thermal Diffusivity with the Laser Flash Method
  • BS ENV 1159-2 – Advanced Technical Ceramics, Ceramic Composites, Thermophysical Properties, Determination of Thermal Diffusivity
  • DIN EN 821 – Advanced Technical Ceramics – Monolithic Ceramics, Thermophysical Properties – Part 2: Determination of Thermal Diffusivity by the Laser Flash Method
Thermal Conductivity

Heat Flow Meters measure thermal conductivity and its associated properties through steady-state testing. Solids, pastes, liquids, thin films, and polymers are all capable of conductivity and thermal resistance measurement.

Temperature Range: -20°C to 300°C

Detectable Information: Thermal Conductivity

Low Thermal Conductivity Materials Standards

  • FOX 200, 314, 600, 801, 1000
    • ASTM C518 – Standard Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Heat Flow Meter Apparatus
    • ISO 8301 – Thermal insulation — Determination of steady-state thermal resistance and related properties — Heat flow meter apparatus
    • DIN EN 12667 – Thermal performance of building materials and products – Determination of thermal resistance by means of guarded hot plate and heat flow meter methods – Products of high and medium thermal resistance

Medium Thermal Conductivity Materials Standards

  • FOX 50
    • ASTM C518 – Standard Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Heat Flow Meter Apparatus
    • ISO 8301 – Thermal insulation — Determination of steady-state thermal resistance and related properties — Heat flow meter apparatus
  • DTC 300
    • ASTM E1530 – Guarded Heat Flow Meter Method
Rubber Testing

RPA Rubber Testing

Rubber Process Analyzers (RPA) characterize material properties of raw polymer and rubber compounds as a function of measurement frequency and amplitude. These material properties directly impact processing behavior, manufacturing efficiency, and final product performance. Flexibility in test method setup provides characterization of rubber compounds before, during, and after the cure in a single test.

These tests can be used for:

  • batch-to-batch variation analysis
  • quality of mix and filler distribution verification (ex. Payne effect)
  • compound formulation and processability studies
  • polymer structure characterization (ex. LCB index)

Standards: ASTM D6048, D6204, D6601, D7050, D8059 and relevant DIN, and ISO standards.

Temperature Range: Ambient to 230°C

Detectable Information: modulus (G’, G”, G*), complex viscosity (eta*), damping factor (tan delta), Payne effect, polymer long chain branching index (LCB index)

MDR

Rubber curemeters (MDR) measure the cure profile of rubber compounds under isothermal or non-isothermal conditions. Non-isothermal conditions include constant heating rates or user-defined temperature profiles which can mimic processing or molding conditions. Additional capabilities include simultaneous measurement of pressure and torque for blowing and foaming materials. These tests can be used for:

  • batch qualification
  • quality of mix verification
  • compound formulation studies
  • reaction kinetics and activation energy calculations
  • cure simulations.

All tests meet ASTM D5289 and other relevant DIN and ISO standards.

Temperature Range: Ambient to 230°C

Detectable Information: Minimum torque (ML), Maximum torque (MH), cure times (TC), scorch times (TS), cure kinetics, activation energy, pressure curves


Mooney Viscometer

Mooney viscometry measure the Mooney viscosity of raw polymers and rubber compounds. The measurement is made at one specific shear rate or rotational speed and the results are reported as Mooney Viscosity in Mooney Units (MU). Additional measurement techniques include Mooney stress-relaxation for relative comparison of elasticity of rubber samples and Mooney scorch which characterizes the onset of cure by measuring the corresponding increase in the Mooney viscosity at a given temperature. These additional tests can be useful for product development and optimizing processing conditions.

Standards: ASTM D1646 and relevant DIN, and ISO standards.

Temperature Range:  30°C to 200°C

Detectable Information: Mooney Viscosity (MU), Mooney stress relaxation (MSR), scorch time

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