The Discovery Xenon Flash DXF 900 platform features a patented High-Speed Xenon-pulse Delivery™ source (HSXD) and an anamorphic multi-faceted Light Pipe™. Together, these optics deliver a light pulse of unsurpassed power and uniform intensity to the specimen, while preventing sample holder over-flash. The TA Instruments High-energy Xenon design is capable of testing samples up to a diameter of 25.4 mm over a temperature range from ambient to 900°C. The use of large samples diminishes errors associated with inhomogeneity and permits representative measurements of poorly dispersed composites. The DXF platform is designed for research and development programs as well as production control.
DXF 900 Features
- Patented High-Speed Xenon Pulse-Delivery system provides 50% more energy than competitive designs for the highest degree of accuracy on widest range of samples regardless of thickness or thermal conductivity
- Patented Light Pipe™ for the most effective collection and collimation of light, and homogeneous delivery of radiation to the sample
- Real-time pulse mapping for superior thermal diffusivity of thin and highly conductive materials
- Wide variety of sample trays accommodates multiple sample sizes (up to 25.4 mm diameter), shapes, and special fixtures (liquids, powders, laminates, films, etc.) for maximum sample testing flexibility
- Autosampler with patented four-position alumina sample tray for maximum productivity
- Advanced resistance heated furnace design provides best-in-class temperature stability and uniformity across sample from RT to 900°C, and enables measurements in air, inert gas, or vacuum
- High sensitivity IR detector for optimum signal-to-noise ratio, delivering highest accuracy over the entire temperature range
- Designed to meet industry standard test methods including ASTM E1461, ASTM C714, ASTM E2585, ISO 13826, ISO 22007-Part4, ISO 18755, BS ENV 1159-2, DIN 30905, and DIN EM821
|Pulse Energy (Variable)||Variable up to 15 Joules|
|Pulse Width||400 µs to 600 µsec|
|Proprietary Transfer Optics||Patented Light Pipe Beam Guide|
|Temperature Range||RT to 900°C|
|Atmosphere||Air, inert, Max. vacuum (50 mtorr)|
|Thermal Diffusivity Range||0.01 to 1000 mm2/s|
|Thermal Conductivity Range||0.1 to 2000 W/(m*K)|
|Data Acquisition||16 bit|
|Round||8, 10, 12.7, & 25.4 mm Diameter|
|Square||8, 10, & 12.7 mm length|
|Maximum Thickness||10 mm|
|Type||Four-Position Tray, inert,
Max. vacuum 50mtorr
- High-Speed Xenon-Pulse Delivery™ (HXSD) Source
- Patented Light Pipe and Neutral Density IR Filters
- Flexible, Multi-Position Sample Holders
High-Speed Xenon-Pulse Delivery™ (HXSD) Source
The DXF 900 features a proprietary High-Speed Xenon-pulse Delivery™(HSXD) source that delivers 50% more energy than competitive Xenon systems. The patented design is comprised of a Xenon source focused on one mirror that produces a highly uniform flash. With 15 Joules of energy, the flash produced by the HSXD is the most powerful and most uniform flash of any Xenon system available on the market, and allows the ability to test thicker lower conductivity samples.
Patented Light Pipe and Neutral Density IR Filters for Unparalleled Accuracy
TA Instruments’ patented wave guide Light Pipe collects and collimates the HSXD source flash, efficiently delivering energy directly to the sample. This unique, highly efficient optical path yields a homogeneous, high quality radiation, maximizing the energy reaching the sample surface. The IR intensity is tuned to the optimal detector range through the use of neutral density IR filters. Unlike systems that rely on multiple apertures or iris design to attenuate intensity, the neutral density filter provides a uniform moderation of intensity and is free from geometry factors and spectral band distortion. These carefully designed detector optics lead to unparalleled accuracy across the full range of thermal diffusivity.
Flexible, Multi-Position Sample Holders
The sample containment system utilizes linear sample holding trays for fast and easy loading. A rim at the bottom of the sample holder supports the specimen, so it is free of any pressure or clamping and well-suited for delicate specimens. The patented* linear design guarantees a perfect positioning of the sample holder in alignment with the flash radiation.
Users can choose between a selection of sample holders which can accommodate two or four samples from 8 mm up to 25.4 mm in size, and of round or square shape. For samples that require specific sample holders, TA Instruments offers a variety of accessories for liquids, powders, laminates, and materials with extremely high thermal diffusivity.
- Consistent Data from -150°C to 900°C
- Accuracy of Xenon Flash
Consistent Data from -150°C to 900°C
Often high performance materials need to be characterized from extremely low to high temperatures. The graph on the lower right shows an oxygen-free high thermal conductivity copper (OFHC) reference material in which thermal conductivity was measured from -150°C to 900°C with both a DXF 200 and DXF 900.
All the measurements fall within ±1.5% of the reference values. Note the agreement of the values between ambient and 200˚C
Accuracy of Xenon Flash
Pyroceram®, a glass-ceramic used for high temperature applications, has been used for over 30 years as a material for verification of the measurement of thermal heat management properties at high temperature. Pyroceram® 9606, a standard reference material (SRM) readily available from NIST, was tested on the DXF 900 to a temperature of 700°C to demonstrate the accuracy of TA Instruments Xenon Flash technology to high temperatures. The figure to the top right shows results are in excellent agreement with the standard reference values.
*Pyroceram® is a registered trademark of Corning Incorporated
The Proven Software Platform for Easy, Accurate Flash Analysis Data
All Discovery Light Flash instruments include FlashLine™ software for Instrument Control and Data Analysis. The Microsoft Windows based software features an intuitive tablebased format for simple programming of experimental parameters in the instrument control interface. Real-time monitoring allows for immediate assessment of the data quality and instrument performance during each test. The Data Analysis module’s automated routines provide users with advanced analysis tools, including models for heat loss correction in both conduction and radiation.
Integrated with the pulse-shape mapping measuring system, FlashLine determines the exact shape of the laser pulse versus time to make pulse shape and width correction. It also identifies the flash zero origin and enables finite pulse effect correction which is critical to guarantee accurate measurements for thin samples and high-diffusivity materials. Additionally, the TA Instrument developed “Goodness of Fit” evaluation tool allows the user to select the best results calculated by different Thermal Diffusivity models.
- Unlimited temperature segments with user-defined heat ramp steps
- User-selectable laser energy for each sample by temperature segment
- Data analysis of any already-completed segment during testing
- Determination of the specific heat by comparative method
- Option for automatic multiple-shots selection and averaging
- Correction for radiation component of transparent and translucent samples
- Automatic optimization of flash energy level
- Option for sample skip, and precision criterion
- Fast zoom function for X and Y segments
- Thermal diffusivity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity tables and graphs as a function of temperature
- Calculations of all models during testing and available by the completion of testing
Standard models include:
- Gembarovic for multi-dimensional heat loss correction and non-linear regression
- Goodness of Fit for the best model result selection
- Pulse gravity center to determine t0
- Pulse length and shape correction
- Two and three layers analysis
- Main models: Clark and Taylor, Cowan, Degiovanni, Koski, Least Squares, Logarithmic, Moment, Heckman, Azumi, and Parker